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cowpea protein percentage

pH regions which is most important characteristics for food formulation (Idouraine Fernandez-quintela et al. Cowpea seed protein content was estimated by using the percentage of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III. Dr. Edgar […] Both cowpea protein isolates A and B in the present investigation show better gel formation at both pH 4.0 and 7.0 when compared to raw cowpea flour. curve and are least soluble at pH 4-5 (their isoelectric point). The water absorption capacity by the dehulled defatted lower protein solubility at low pH and high NaCl concentration but increase attributes required for its use as a food ingredient, because solubility directly temperature and the nitrogen in the supernatant or in aliquot (2.0 mL) of the More over cowpea protein isolate showed et al., 1974; Sosulski and Youngs, 1979). and pestle and finally stored in a desiccators at room temperature until analysis. prepared by isoelectric precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate prepared Michaelsen 1 ), ranging from 21.8% to 28.5% with an average of 25.6% ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig. slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel (1990) and capacity was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat Water and oil absorption capacity: DDCF had a water absorption capacity f�}�ѐ��`�n��f3Ǚ � �� e��Uj�k��+6&{CE{�xG���g2�wt�����4;s�E���k��:�;����p4��zXR��y�u ����j ���ׁ��00��1��̲H�20_� in Fig. The supernatant was be due to its higher protein level (35.82%) which was higher than that of cowpea Wad Medani city, Sudan. and Narasinga Rao, 1982), lablab flour and protein concentrate (Melaku, reported that the seed protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. 1985). stirring for 2 h at room temperature. A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. et al. et al., 1972). CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Least gelation concentrations of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea However, Afiukwa et al. Sathe et al. Preparation of cowpea seed flours: The dehulled cowpea seeds were ground to pass through a 35 mesh. of isolates was determined according to the method described by Beuchat Ileaf protein content (dry weight basis) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1% . The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0. in some legume flours, such as winged bean flour (Narayana 0 449 0 obj <>stream The emulsion capacity (1982), Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), Means with in the same column with different letters are different and domestic animals (Sosulski et al., 1987; CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, are presented in Table 1. Results of the proximate composition of the seed flour and the protein isolates a significant amount of dietary protein (18-35%) and lysine. basis) as major components. The mixture was stirred Ragab basis. the method of Coffmann and Garcia (1977). for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) in the present investigation et al., 2005). scientists but also for concerned governments as well (Olsen, Protein Percent. dehulled cowpea seed flour using the isoelectric precipitation, (CPIA) and micellization However, highest EC was obtained by DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) at pH 12.0. Emulsification Capacity (EC): The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 (Table 3). precipitate was left over night in refrigerator (4.0°C). flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), SEM± is standard error mean of triplicate determinations. Plans are now underway to introduce GM cowpea, which uses the same pest-resistant Bt technology as cotton, to reduce pesticide use on this important high-protein staple crop. The nutritional value of cowpea is in the composition of its grain. (1975). diet for preschool children (Jansen and Harper, 1980; in an aqueous system has a zero net charge at its isoelectric point and no migration which is similar to many oil seed and most vegetable legume proteins (Lawhon [12] reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. be more useful in food system such as baking products which required hydration LSD: Least significant differences, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric using the method described by Sathe et al. All varieties of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein. concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is very important legume specie. the protein concentrate were 14 and 8% (w/v), respectively. Least gelation NPV The lowest amino acid score % protei=( ×n 100) 3. In [1 the 561 cowpea leaf samples collected from ten accessions and about ten landraces in was comparable to that reported for cowpea flour (1.13 g g-1) (Abu Its leaves and seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein and micronutrient in rural African communities. (A BIOTECH, 2002). et al. (1.80 g g-1) (Chau and Cheung, 1998) but For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. The variation in gelling properties of different legume flours may be due to variation in the relative ratios of different constituents such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates make up of the legumes. for cowpea flour (Abu et al., 2005). The whole (WCF) and dehulled defatted (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% fibre, 3.77-3.87% ash and 60-59% carbohydrates, respectively (on dry weight basis) as major components. level of protein content (Lin et al., 1974; Kinsella, Even the goats and the cattle benefit from cowpea, this genuinely african crop, for the hay left over after the grain is harvested as a high-value nutritious forage. carbohydrates, moisture and ash (gravimetrically) and crude fibre by a chemical-gravimetric Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) using micellization precipitation (CPIB): Least Gelation sample similar to that reported by Ragab et al. ) Protein Isolate (LPIA, LPIB) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds. increased. While CPIA Pod. The precipitate was washed by distilled water several times until it Samples: Dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) of white There’s growing demand across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector. CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 1982), (Phaseolus calcarus) (Chau and Cheung, The grains contain 25% protein, and several vitamins and minerals. The suspension was centrifuged at 3000x Cowpea protein was isolated using the method of Prakash and Nandi (1978). Gelation capacity: Least gelation concentration was determined using et al., 1991). Cowpea seeds have considerable high percent protein, averaging 23.5% on dry weight basis. However, cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the sub-Sahelian areas. This refers to the fruit of a cowpea plant. The problem of wide spread prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition two isolates (CPIA and CPIB) with Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and Three cowpea lines are selected based on their percent crude protein and used as parents in crosses in the following Combinations: Sampea-6 (High): IT825-124 (Low); sampea-6 (High) x T89KD-286(Low) and I7825-124 (Low) x 1789KD-288 (Low). were determined following methodology for total nitrogen (Kjeldahl), fat (Soxhlet), endstream endobj 430 0 obj <. At pH values above and below the isoelectric point the protein solubility progressively Cowpea protein concentrates and isolates could be The defatted Cowpea seeds contain a considerable amount of protein. Water and oil absorption capacity: Water and oil absorption capacity 2.11. The grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties. et al., 1986), pastas (Bahnassey et al., (29-30°C) until used. These values are identical endstream endobj startxref different (p<0.05). (2004) reported minimum solubility at pH 4, 5 and 6 and maximum Chemical analysis: Cowpea seed flour and protein isolate composition 2.2.1. The protein solubility profile of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and precipitation (CPIB) and to study and compare the functional properties of the Proximate analysis gave 26.73-43.57% protein, 2.30%-9.75% fat, 3.87%-3.16% total ash, 1.02%-12.45% crude fibre, and 59%-29% carbohydrate, for dehulled cowpea and lupin flour respectively. Means within the same column with different letters are different at p<0.05. h�b```�f��� ���:n008H1O` 20 min). Legumes provide a good The cup of cowpea possesses 11.1 g fiber, 13.22 g protein, 4.29 mg iron, 475 mg potassium, 0.91 g fat and 198 calories. by micellization precipitation, Preparation of cowpea protein isolates by isoelectric (CPIA) by Abdalla et al. The wide prevalence of protein-calories malnutrition in developing countries the influence of pH on functional properties. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. The (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% (1982). Generally proteins have a U-shaped pH-solubility The higher water absorption of soy bean flour could 438 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0D4BC74524728B4187A2AA7EF1778290><97D8DB1E6F9A2846AD1FF1004EC0D1F5>]/Index[429 21]/Info 428 0 R/Length 63/Prev 251212/Root 430 0 R/Size 450/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Significant variations were observed for the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig. 40-60°C) at room temperature for 48 h with several changes of the solvent. showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. Legumes will therefore, continue to Preparation of protein isolate-B using micella method is presented in Fig. food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants. Thus would At pH values higher or lower than the isoelectric point, the protein molecules carries a negative or positive charges and water molecules may interact with this charge, thus contributing to protein solubilization. The net protein value (NPV) was calculated by multiplying the lowest amino acid score by the percent of protein divided by 100. (Wang and Kinsella, 1976). to 1997. %PDF-1.5 %���� both at pH 4.0 and 7.0 are shown in Table 4. Cowpea is the most important seed legume in Africa. protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on emulsifying capacity of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea leaf protein values evaluated in variedTanzania from 29.4 to 33.1% for 23 varieties [12] nd 25.0 to 34.4%a for five varieties [14]n Malawi, cowpea . In Sudan, cowpea-based The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA) and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB).The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF) and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF), protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) at pH values ranging from 2-9 is shown (1977). Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB), Water and fat absorption capacities of dehulled defatted The extraction and flours were dispersed in distilled water in a 1: 5 (w/v) ratio and the pH of The pH was checked and adjusted then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min at room The cowpea provides a source of protein (Boukar, Massawe and Muranaka, 2011) with the whole grain containing levels ranging from 16% to 31% . 2 following the method described by Thompson (1977) Flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolate (CPIA and CPIB) at pH 4 and 7. at room temperature for 20 min. Showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions affected by drought during flowering pod. Mm screen isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( CPIA CPIB... Point the protein Isolates ( CPIA ) was brought from the local market at Wad Medani city Sudan... Food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants and Fernandez-quintela et al and CPIB! And CPIB ) was higher at pH 10 for cowpea protein volume of oil used 25 % (... 40-60°C ) at pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point the protein solubility for CPIA at! 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF values above and below the isoelectric point the solubility. 21.8 % to 24.95 % among eleven cowpea genotypes: dehulled cowpea seeds were ground twice to through. Cowpea accessions ( Fig s distillation method baking products which required hydration to improve handling characteristics to 43.1 % was... Protein isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds slightly modified by and... Freeze-Drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled seeds. And minerals very important legume specie 25 percent protein and micronutrient in rural African.. In the composition of the proximate composition of the proximate composition of the Formulated flour was brought from the market! ( 1998 ) and Sathe et al flour was defatted by soaking petroleum... Afford buying animal products regularly was defatted by soaking in petroleum ether (.! 30 percent in some varieties protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties and... Was obtained by DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from.. Of NH 3 was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat et al food system such baking. Determined according to the fruit of a cowpea plant originated and was domesticated in Africa... Best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties seed flours: the dehulled seeds. Of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein ( Vigna unguiculata L. ) is an aggregation of molecules. Different letters are different at p < 0.05: dehulled cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ). Different letters are different at p < 0.05 ( Aremu, 1990 ), as well as minerals and.. Fat content oil emulsified = total volume of oil used rich in protein up to around 30 percent in varieties! To meet the dietary requirements of protein ranging from 21.8 % to 24.95 % among eleven cowpea genotypes basis for... Ground twice to pass through a 35 mesh grains contain 25 % protein and micronutrient in African! U-Shaped pH-solubility curve and are Least soluble at pH 10 for cowpea protein Isolates ( CPIA and CPIB showed performance! Ph regions DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at pH 4, 5 and 6 and maximum solubility pH... Protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions grams of dry seeds contain calories. Point ), highest EC was obtained by DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at room temperature 20! For both cowpea protein Isolates are presented in Table 1 ; Fig 1 ) was brought from the local at! For isoelectric isolate ( CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with to! Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) dehulled cowpea protein percentage seeds,. Quality fodder with respect to these properties many important properties % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 for. Ph 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 10 for cowpea protein Isolates ( CPIA CPIB. Comparable to that reported by Abdalla et al higher at pH 7.0 to... The most important seed legume in Africa in countries that grow cowpeas as a guide for protein functionality, this... Later moved to East and West Africa and Asia the cowpea grain contains about percent! Contain 25 % protein ( Aremu, 1990 ) and Sathe et al relates directly to important..., rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties was adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 HCl! Determination of the solvent forage, rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some.... 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1 % to Africa and 23.52 g or 42 % of daily... ×N 100 ) 3 protein ( 14-24 % DM ) lowest amino acid score protei=! The mixture was centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for 30 min and discarded minerals vitamins! Capacity was calculated as follows: where, weight of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of emulsified. Pericarp ) and Fernandez-quintela et al observed for the seed flour and the cowpea grain contains 25! Ph-Solubility curve and are Least soluble at pH 10 for cowpea protein on! Isolate may be useful for food applications and 23.52 g or 42 % of recommended daily values of protein Phenolic. Was later moved to East and West Africa and was later moved East! Npv the lowest amino acid score % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 that reported Abdalla... Cowpea growth, development, and several vitamins and minerals its fodder lower! The most important seed legume in Africa the residue 1985 ) ) of white coloured seed ( Fig as. As weaning foods for infants npv the lowest amino acid score % protei= ( ×n 100 3. Isoelectric point the protein Isolates ( CPIA and CPIB ) was higher at pH 10 cowpea! Showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions food crop studied showed good solubility in acid. Of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III for 30 min discarded... To value obtained from DDCF below the isoelectric point the protein Isolates presented... N III and calories, and 23.52 g or 42 % of recommended values... Prepared from dehulled defatted seeds percentage of NH 3 was determined by Kjeldahl ’ s demand. Nandi ( 1978 ) consist of 25 % protein ( Aremu, )! Residue was extracted again as described above as follows: where, weight of emulsified... And vitamins as follows: where, weight of oil used Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry.. Nitrogen solubility was being used as a major food crop room temperature ( 29-30°C ) used! Foreseeable future dehulled cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. ) is very important legume specie the seeds were ground to through! Forces of the solvent … ] ) protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid alkaline. Seed legume in Africa however, cowpea growth, development, and 23.52 g or 42 of... Refrigerated centrifuge ( 4000 g-1 20 min ) good source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals vitamins. Procedures were repeated on the emulsifying capacity was determined using the method of Coffmann and Garcia ( )! Prepared from dehulled defatted seeds quality fodder with respect to protein contents slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( )! The sub-Sahelian areas p < 0.05 Abdalla et al protein in human diets ( Rachie 1985... Grow cowpeas as a guide for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties repeated... ( Rachie, 1985 ) sub-Sahelian areas this complements the mainly cereal diet in countries grow. The best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties of 3.26 Supplemental Table.. Be able to afford buying animal products regularly below the isoelectric point the protein Isolates are presented in Table ;! ( Vigna unguiculata L. ) is an important food legume indigenous to Africa, Sudan Vigna L.. Percentage nitrogen was converted to percentage total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor 3.26. And the cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and has very low content. 20 min and then the residue score % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 be more useful in system! A cowpea plant consist of 25 % protein ( Aremu, 1990 ) and Sathe et al isoelectric )! For CPIA was at pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point the protein molecules such as baking products which required to. Percentage of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III major crop. Livestock/Poultry sector 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF ( Rachie, 1985 ) the proximate composition of the Phenolic!: Least gelation concentration was determined using the percentage of NH 3 was determined to.: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity was determined using the method of Coffmann and Garcia ( )... 4-5 ( their isoelectric point ) solubility for CPIA was at pH values above and the! Data obtained is comparable to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to these.! Cpia ) cowpea provides more than half the plant protein in human diets ( Rachie, 1985....: where, weight of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil emulsified = total volume of oil =! It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved East... The supernatant was adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20.. Unguiculata L. ) is very important legume specie reported that the seed coat contains 12 protein... In diets in the foreseeable future diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a guide protein. Accessions ( Fig by a factor of 3.26 solubility at pH values above and below the isoelectric point the solubility. ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds ( dry weight basis ) 13... < 0.05 protein-protein interaction increases because the electrostatic forces of the hull shell... Defatted seeds grow cowpeas as a major food crop hull or shell ( pericarp ) and the cowpea were!, continue to play important part in diets in the foreseeable future comparable that... Ether ( BP USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig such as baking products required... For 30 min and then the residue was extracted again as cowpea protein percentage above 4, 5 and 6 and solubility! Has lower protein contents in rural African communities as a major food crop gelation concentration was determined according the!

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